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Denning, A. S. (2022). Where Has all the Carbon Gone? Submitted to Ann. Rev. Earth. Plan. Sci.


Denning, A. S., 2021. Southeast Amazonia is no longer a carbon sink. Nature, 595, 354-355. (PDF)

Haynes, K.D., Baker, I.T., & Denning, A.S. (2021).  SiB4 Modeled Global 0.5-Degree Hourly Carbon Fluxes and Productivity, 2000-2018.  ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA,

Hu, L., Montzka, S. A., Kaushik, A., Andrews, A. E., Sweeney, C., Miller, J., Baker, I. T., Denning, A. S., Campbell, E., Shiga, Y. P., Tans, P. P., Siso, M. C., Crotwell, M., McKain, K., Thoning, K., Hall, B., Vimont, I., Elkins, J. W., Whelan, M. E., and Suntharalingam, P., 2021. COS-derived GPP relationships with temperature and light help explain high-latitude atmospheric CO2 seasonal cycle amplification. Proc. Nat. 118, 

Gallup, S. M., Baker, I. T., Gallup, J. L., Restrepo-Coupe, N., Haynes, K. D., Geyer, N. M., & Denning, A. S. (2021). Accurate simulation of both sensitivity and variability for Amazonian photosynthesis: Is it too much to ask? Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 13, e2021MS002555.


Bell, E., C. O’Dell, K. J. Davis, J. Campbell, E. Browell, A. S. Denning, J. Dobler, W. Erxleben, T.-F. Fan, S. Kooi, B. Lin, S. Pal, and B. Weir, 2020. Evaluation of OCO-2 XCO2 Variability at Local and Synoptic Scales using Lidar and In Situ Observations from the ACT-America Campaign. Geophys. Res.


Haynes, K. D., I. T. Baker, A. S. Denning, R. Stockli, K. Schaefer, E. Y. Lokupitiya, and J. M. Haynes, 2019. Representing ecosystems using dynamic prognostic phenology based on biological growth stages: Part 1. Implementation in the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB4). Jour. Adv. Modeling Earth Sys. 11, 4423-4439.

Haynes, K. D., I. T. Baker, A. S. Denning, S. Wolf, G. Wohlfahrt, G. Kieley, and R. C. Minaya, 2019. Representing ecosystems using dynamic prognostic phenology based on biological growth stages: Part 2. Carbon cycling. Jour. Adv. Modeling Earth Sys. 11, 4440-4465.

Baker, I. T., A. S. Denning, D. A. Dazlich, A. B. Harper, M. D. Branson, D. A. Randall, 2019. Surface-atmosphere coupling scale, the fate of water, and ecophysiological functioning in a Brazilian forest. Adv. Modeling Earth Sys., 11, 2523-2546.

Randall, D. A.; C. M. Bitz; G. Danabasoglu; A. S. Denning; P. Gent; A. Gettelman; S. Griffies; P. Lynch; H. Morrison; R. Pincus; J. Thuburn. 2019. 100 Years of Earth System Model Development. In: A Century of Progress in Atmospheric and Related Sciences: Celebrating the American Meteorological Society Centennial, pp 12.1-12.66. Amer. Meteor. Soc.

Piña, A.J., S. Schumacher, A.S. Denning, W.B. Faulkner, J.S. Baron, J. Ham, D.S. Ojima, and J.L. Collett, 2019: Reducing wet ammonium deposition in Rocky Mountain National Park: The development and evaluation of a pilot early warning system for agricultural operations in eastern Colorado. Environmental Management,


Denning, A. S. 2017. Combustion to Concentration to Warming: What Do Climate Targets Mean for Emissions? In: Dominick A. DellaSala, and Michael I. Goldstein (eds.) The Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene, vol. 1, p. 443-452. Oxford: Elsevier.

Baker, I. T., P. J. Sellers, A. S. Denning, I. Medina, P. Kraus, K. D. Haynes, and S. C. Biraud (2017), Closing the scale gap between land surface parameterizations and GCMs with a new scheme, SiB3-Bins, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 9, doi:10.1002/ 2016MS000764.


Barnes, E. A., N. Parazoo, C. Orbe, and A. S. Denning, 2016. Isentropic transport and the seasonal cycle amplitude of CO2. Jour. Geophys. Res Atmos., doi:10.1002/2016/JD025109 (PDF)

Burt, M. A., R. Haacker, R. L. Batchelor, A. S. Denning, 2016. Increasing the diversity of your graduate program: Translating best practices into success. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00004.1 (PDF).

Lokupitiya, E., A. S. Denning, K. Schaefer, D. Ricciuto, R. Anderson, M. A. Arain, I. Baker, A. G. Barr, G. Chen, J.M. Chen, P. Ciais, D.R. Cook, M. Dietze, M. El Maayar, M. Fischer, R. Grant, D. Hollinger, C. Izaurralde, A. Jain,  C. Kucharik, Z. Li, S. Liu, L. Longhui, R. Matamala, P. Peylin, D. Price, S.W. Running, A. Sahoo, M. Sprintsin, A.E. Suyker, H. Tian, C. Tonitto, M. Torn, H. Verbeeck, S.B. Verma, Y. Xue, 2016. Carbon and energy fluxes in cropland ecosystems — A model-data comparison. Biogeochemistry, DOI 10.1007/s10533-016-0219-3. (PDF).

Wang, Y., Deutscher, N. M., Palm, M., Warneke, T., Nothold, J., Baker, I., Berry, J., Suntharalingam, P., Jones, N., Mahieu, E., Lejeune, B.,  Hannigan, J., Conway, S., Mendonca, J., Strong, K., Campbell, J. E., Wolf, A., and Kremser, S., 2016. Towards understanding the variability in biospheric CO2 fluxes: using FTIR spectrometry and a chemical transport model to investigate the sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide and its link to CO2. Amos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2123-2138. doi:10.5194/acp-16-2123-2016. (PDF)


Iverson, T., A. S. Denning, and S. Zahran, 2015. When the Long Run Matters: The Joint Effect of Carbon Decay and Discounting. Climatic Change 129:57-72 DOI 10.1007/s10584-014-1321-y. (PDF)

Ogle, Stephen, K. Davis, T. Lauvaux, A. Schuh, D. Cooley, T. West, L. Heath, T. Miles, S. Richardson, F. Breidt, J. Smith, J. McCarty, K. Gurney, P. Tans, and A. Denning, 2015. An Approach for Verifying Biogenic Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories with Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Data. Environ. Res. Lett. 10 034012 (PDF)

Kuai, L., J. Worden, E. Campbell, S. Kulawik, K.-F.Li, M. Lee, R. Weidner, S. Montzka, F. Moore , J. A. Berry, I. Baker, S. Denning, H. Bian, K. Bowman, J. Liu, Y. Yung, 2015. Estimate of Carbonyl Sulfide Tropical Oceanic Surface Fluxes using Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer Observations. Jour. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2015JD023493 (PDF)

Commane, R., L. K. Meredith, I.  T. Baker, J.  A. Berry, J. W.  Munger, S.  A. Montzka, P.  H. Templer, S. M. Juice, M. S. Zahniser, and S.  C. Wofsy, 2015. Seasonal fluxes of carbonyl sulfide in a midlatitude forest. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., (PDF)

Glatthor, N., M. Höpfner, I. T. Baker, J. Berry, J. E. Campbell, S. R. Kawa, G. Krysztofiak, A. Leyser, B.-M. Sinnhuber, G. P. Stiller, J. Stinecipher, and T. von Clarmann, 2015. Tropical sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide observed from space. Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1002/2015GL066293. (PDF)


Medina, I., A. S. Denning, I. T. Baker, J. A. Ramirez, and D. A. Randall, 2014. A sampling method for improving the representation of spatially varying precipitation and soil wetness using the Simple Biosphere model (SiB3). Jour. Adv. Modeling Earth Sys., 6, 1–11, doi:10.1002/2013MS000251 (PDF)

Harper, A. B., I. T. Baker, A. S. Denning, R. A. Fisher, D. Markewitz, D. Galbraith, A. C. Lola da Costa, S. S. Almeida, and P. Meir2013. Sensitivity of Amazon tropical forest drought response: a data-model comparison. Submitted to Jour. Geophys. Res. Biogeosciences (PDF)


McGrath-Spangler, E. L. and A. S. Denning, 2012. Global Variations of PBL Depth from Space-Borne LIDAR.  Jour. Geophys. Res. 118, 1–8, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50198.(PDF)

Schuh, A. E., T. Lauvaux, T. West, A. S. Denning, D. Cooley, K. J. Davis, M. Uliasz, N. Miles, S. Richardson, A. Andrews, and S. Ogle, 2012. Evaluating atmospheric CO2 inversions at multiple scales over a highly-inventoried agricultural landscape. Global Change Biol19, 1424–1439, doi: 10.1111/gcb.12141  (PDF)

Berry, J. A., A. Wolf, J. E. Campbell, I. Baker, N. Blake, D. Blake, A. S. Denning, S. R. Kawa, S. Montzka, U. Seibt, K. Stimler, D. Yakir, and Z. Zhu, 2013. A coupled model of the global cycles of carbonyl sulfide and CO2: A possible new window on the carbon cycle. Jour Geophys Res Biogeosciences, 118, 842-852, doi:10.1002/jgrg.20068. (PDF)

Baker, I. T., A.B. Harper, H.R. da Rocha, A.S. Denning, A.C. Araujo, L.S. Borma, H.C. Freitas, M.L. Goulden, A.O. Manzi, S.D. Miller, A.D. Nobre, N. Restrepo-Coupe, S.R. Saleska, R. Stockli, C. von Randow, and S.C. Wofsy, 2013. Surface ecophysiological behavior across vegetation and moisture gradients in tropical South America.  Ag. Forest Met. doi:10.1016/j.agformet.2012.11.015. (PDF)

van der Velde, I. R.,  J. B. Miller,  K. Schaefer,  K. A. Masarie, S. Denning,  J. W. C. White, P. P. Tans, M. C. Krol, and W. Peters, 2013. Biosphere model simulations of interannual variability in terrestrial 13C/12C exchange. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. doi:10.1002/gbc.20048. (PDF)

Harper, A., I. T. Baker, A. S. Denning, D. A. Randall, D. Dazlich, M. Branson,  2013. Impact of surface evapotranspiration on dry season climate in the Amazon forest.  Jour. Climate. 0.1175/JCLI-D-13-00074.1 (PDF)



McGrath-Spangler, E. L., and A. S. Denning (2012), Estimates of North American summertime planetary boundary layer depths derived from space-borne LIDAR, J. Geophys. Res., 117(D15101), doi:10.1029/2012JD017615. (PDF)

Parazoo, N. C. A. S. Denning, S. R. Kawa, S. Pawson, and R. Lokupitiya (2012). CO2 flux estimation errors associated with moist atmospheric processes. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6405–6416, doi:10.5194/acp-12-6405-2012. (PDF)

Lauvaux, T., A. E. Schuh, M. Boquet, L. Wu, S. Richardson, N. Miles, and K. Davis (2012). Network design for mesoscale inversions of CO2 sources and sinks. Tellus B,  64, 17980, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.17980  (PDF)

Cooley, D., F. J. Breidt, S. M. Ogle, A. E. Schuh, and T. Lauvaux (2012). A constrained least-squares approach to combine bottom-up and top-down CO2 flux estimates. Environ. Ecol. Stat20:129–146 DOI 10.1007/s10651-012-0211-6. (PDF)

Lauvaux, T,. A. E. Schuh, M. Uliasz, S. Richardson, N. Miles, A. E. Andrews, C. Sweeney, L. I. Diaz, D. Martins, P. B. Shepson, and K. J. Davis (2012). Constraining the CO2 budget of the corn belt: exploring uncertainties from the assumptions in a mesoscale inverse system. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 337–354, doi:10.5194/acp-12-337-2012. (PDF)

Huntzinger, D. N. et al. (2012), North American Carbon Program (NACP) regional interim synthesis: Terrestrial biospheric model intercomparison, Ecological Modelling, 232, 144–157, doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.02.004.(PDF)

Keenan, T. F. et al. (2012), Terrestrial biosphere model performance for inter-annual variability of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange, Global Change Biology, 18(6), 1971–1987, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02678.x. (PDF)

Li, L., Y.-P. Wang, Q. Yu, B. Pak, D. Eamus, J. Yan, E. van Gorsel, and I. T. Baker (2012), Improving the responses of the Australian community land surface model (CABLE) to seasonal drought, J. Geophys. Res., 117(G4), G04002, doi:10.1029/2012JG002038. (PDF)

Schaefer, K. et al. (2012), A model-data comparison of gross primary productivity: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis, J. Geophys. Res., 117(G3), G03010, doi:10.1029/2012JG001960.(PDF)

Sulman, B. N. et al. (2012), Impact of hydrological variations on modeling of peatland CO 2fluxes: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis, J. Geophys. Res., 117(G1), G01031, doi:10.1029/2011JG001862. (PDF)


Stöckli, R., T. Rutishauser, I. Baker, M. A. Liniger, and A. S. Denning (2011), A global reanalysis of vegetation phenology, J. Geophys. Res., 116, G03020, doi:10.1029/2010JG001545 (PDF)

Parazoo, N. C.,  A. S. Denning, J. A. Berry, A. Wolf, D. A. Randall, S. R. Kawa, O. Pauluis, and S. C. Doney., 2011. Moist synoptic transport of CO2 along the mid‐latitude storm track. Geophys. Res. Let., 38, L09804, doi:10.1029/2011GL047238. (PDF)

Schwalm, C. R., C. A. Williams, K. Schaefer, I. Baker, G. J. Collatz, and C. Rödenbeck (2011), Does terrestrial drought explain global CO2 flux anomalies induced by El Niño? Biogeosciences, 8(9), 2493–2506, doi:10.5194/bg-8-2493-2011. (PDF)

Ballantyne, A. P., J. B. Miller, I. T. Baker, P. P. Tans, and J. W. C. White (2011), Novel applications of carbon isotopes in atmospheric CO2: what can atmospheric measurements teach us about processes in the biosphere? Biogeosciences, 8(10), 3093–3106, doi:10.5194/bg-8-3093-2011. (PDF)


Harper, A. B., A. S. Denning , I. Baker , M. Branson , L. Prihodko , D. Randall, 2010. The role of deep soil moisture in modulating climate in the Amazon rainforest. Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2009GL042302. (PDF)

Schuh, A. E., A. S. Denning, K. D. Corbin, I. T. Baker, M. Uliasz, N. Parazoo, A. E. Andrews, and D. E. J. Worthy, 2010. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004. Biogeosciences, 7, 1625–1644.(PDF)

Baker, I.T., A. S. Denning, R. Stockli, 2010. North American gross primary productivity: Regional characterization and interannual variability. Tellus(PDF)

Corbin, K.D., A.S. Denning, E.Y. Lokupitya, A.E. Schuh, N.L. Miles, K.J. Davis, S. Richardson, I.T. Baker, 2010: Assessing the impact of crops on regional CO2 fluxes and atmospheric concentrations. Tellus(PDF)

Corbin, K. T., A. S Denning, and K. R. Gurney, 2010. The space and time impacts on U.S. regional atmospheric CO2 concentration from a high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions inventory. Tellus (PDF)

McGrath-Spangler, E. L., and  A. S. Denning, 2010. Impact of entrainment from overshooting thermals on land–atmosphere interactions during summer 1999. Tellus, 62B, 441–454 (PDF)

Butler, M. P., K. J. Davis, A. S. Denning, and S. R. Kawa, 2010. Using continental observations in global atmospheric inversions of CO2: 1. North American carbon sources and sinks. Tellus. 62B, 550-572. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00501.x (PDF)



Schuh, A. E., A. S. Denning, M. Uliasz, K. D. Corbin, 2009. Seeing the Forest through the Trees:  Recovering large scale carbon flux biases in the midst of small scale variability. Jour. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2008JG000842. (PDF)

Lokupitiya, E., A. S. Denning, K. Paustian, I. T. Baker, K. Schaefer, S. Verma, T. Meyers, C. Bernacchi, A. Suyker, and M. Fischer, 2009. Incorporation of crop phenology in Simple Biosphere Model (SiBcrop) to improve land-atmosphere carbon exchanges from croplands. Biogeosciences6, 969-986. (PDF)

McGrath-Spangler, E. L., A. S. Denning, K. D. Corbin and I. T. Baker, 2009: Sensitivity of land-atmosphere exchanges to overshooting PBL thermals in an idealized coupled model. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., Vol. 1, Art. #14, 13 pp., doi:10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.14. (PDF)

Corbin, K. D., A. S. Denning, and N. Parazoo. Assessing temporal clear-sky errors in assimilation of satellite CO2 retrievals using a global transport model, 2009. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3043-3048.(PDF)



Prihodko, L., A.S. Denning, N.P. Hanan,  I. Baker, K. Davis, 2008. Sensitivity, uncertainty  and time dependence of parameters in a complex land surface model. Agric. Forest Meteorol.,148, 268-287, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.08.006. (PDF)

Denning, A. S., N. Zhang, X. Yi, M. Branson, P. Bakwin, K. Davis, and J. Kleist, 2008.  Evaluation of Simulated Boundary Layer Depth at the WLEF-TV Tower Site. Agric. Forest Meteorol., 148, 206-215, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.08.012. (PDF)

Corbin, K.D., A.S. Denning, J.-W. Wang, L. Lu, L. Prihodko, and I.T. Baker, 2008.  Representation error in potential atmospheric CO2 retrievals from satellites. Jour. Geophys. Res., 113, D02301, doi:10.1029/2007JD008716 (PDF)

Stockli, R., D. M. Lawrence, G.-Y. Niu, K. W. Oleson, P. E. Thornton, Z.-L. Yang, G. B. Bonan, A. S. Denning, and S. W. Running, 2008. The use of Fluxnet in the Community Land Model development. Jour. Geophys. Res., 113, G01025, doi:10.1029/2007JG000562. (PDF)

Lauvaux, T., M. Uliasz, C. Sarrat, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, C. Lac, K. J. Davis, P. Ciais, A. S. Denning, and P. Rayner, 2008. Mesoscale inversion: first results from the CERES campaign with synthetic data. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3459-3471.(PDF)

Baker, I. T., L. Prihodko, A.S. Denning, M. Goulden, S. Miller, and H.R. da Rocha, 2008. Seasonal Drought Stress in the Amazon: Reconciling Models and Observations. Jour. Geophys. Res113, G00B01, doi:10.1029/2007JG000644. (PDF)

Gurney, K. R., D. Baker, P. Rayner, and S. Denning, 2008. Interannual variations in continental-scale net carbon exchange and sensitivity to observing networks estimated from atmospheric CO2 inversions for the period 1980 to 2005, Global Biogeochem. Cycles22, GB3025, doi:10.1029/2007GB003082. (PDF)

Law, R. M., W. Peters, C. Rodenbeck, C. Aulagnier, I. Baker, D. J. Bergmann, P. Bousquet, J. Brandt, L. Bruhwiler, P. J. Cameron-Smith, J. H. Christensen, F. Delage, A. S. Denning, S. Fan, C. Geels, S. Houweling, R. Imasu, U. Karstens, S. R. Kawa, J. Kleist, M. C. Krol, S.-J. Lin, R. Lokupitiya, T. Maki, S. Maksyutov, Y. Niwa, R. Onishi, N. Parazoo, P. K. Patra, G. Pieterse, L. Rivier, M. Satoh, S. Serrar, S. Taguchi, M. Takigawa, R. Vautard, A. T. Vermuelen, and Z. Zhu, 2008. TransCom model simulations of hourly atmospheric CO2: experimental overview and diurnal cycle results for 2002. Global Biogeochem. Cycles22,GB3009, doi:10.1029/2007GB003050. (PDF)

Schaefer, K., P. Tans, S. Denning, I. Baker, J. Berry, L. Prihodko,  N. Suits, and A. Philpott, 2008. The combined Simple Biosphere/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (SiBCASA) Model, Jour. Geophys. Res., 113, G03034, doi:10.1029/2007JG000603. (PDF)

Parazoo, N., A. S. Denning, R. Kawa, K. Corbin, R. Lokupitia, I. Baker, and D. Worthy, 2008. Mechanisms for synoptic transport of CO2 in the midlatitudes and tropics. Atmos. Chem. Phys8, 7239-7254. (PDF)

Lokupitiya, R. S., D. Zupanski, A. S. Denning, S. R. Kawa, K. R. Gurney, and M. Zupanski, 2008. Estimation of global CO2 fluxes at regional scale using the Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter. Jour. Geophys. Res113, D20110, doi:10.1029/2007JD009679. (PDF)

Pieterse, G., Vermeulen, A. T., Baker, I. T., and Denning, A. S., 2008. Lagrangian transport modelling for CO2 using two different biosphere models, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 8, 4117-4154.

Stockli, R., T. Rutishauser, P. E. Thornton, L. Lu, and A. S. Denning, 2008. Remote sensing data assimilation for a prognostic phenology model. Jour. Geophys. Res113, G04021, doi:10.1029/2008JG000781. (PDF)

Patra, P. K., R. M. Law, W. Peters, C. Rӧdenbeck, M. Takigawa, C. Aulagnier, I. Baker, D. J. Bergmann, P. Bousquet, J. Brandt, L. Bruhwiler, P. J. Cameron-Smith, J. H. Christensen, F. Delage, A. S. Denning, S. Fan, C. Geels, S. Houweling, R. Imasu, U. Karstens,, S. R. Kawa, J. Kleist, M. C. Krol,, S.-J. Lin, R. Lokupitiya, T. Maki, S. Maksyutov,, Y. Niwa, R. Onishi, N. Parazoo, G. Pieterse,, L. Rivier, M. Satoh,, S. Serrar, S. Taguchi, R. Vautard, A. T. Vermeulen, Z. Zhu, 2008. TransCom model simulations of hourly atmospheric CO2: analysis of synoptic scale variations for the period 2002-2003. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles22, GB4013, doi:10.1029/2007GB003081. (PDF)

Williams, C. A., N. P. Hanan, I. Baker, G. J. Collatz, and A. S. Denning, 2008. Interannual variability of photosynthesis across Africa and its attribution. Jour. Geophys. Res113, G04015, doi:10.1029/2008JG000718. (PDF)



Wang, J.-W., A. S. Denning, L. Lu, I. T. Baker, K. D. Corbin, and K. J. Davis, 2007. Observations and simulations of synoptic, regional, and local variations in atmospheric CO2. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D04108, doi:10.1029/2006JD007410. (PDF)

Miller, C. E., D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, 2007. Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data.  J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10314, doi:10.1029/2006JD007659. (PDF)

Williams, C.A., N.P. Hanan, J. Neff, R.J. Scholes, J.A. Berry, A.S. Denning, D. F. Baker, 2007.  Africa and the global carbon cycle. Carbon Balance and Management, 2:3.(PDF)

Stephens, B. B., K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S.Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, 2007. Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon Uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2. Science316, 1732-1735. (PDF)

Zupanski, D., A. S. Denning, M. Uliasz, M. Zupanski, A. E. Schuh, P. J. Rayner, W. Peters, and K. D. Corbin, 2007. Carbon flux bias estimation employing the Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter (MLEF). Jour. Geophys. Res112, D17107, doi:10.1029/2006JD008371.(PDF)



Baker, D. F., R. M. Law, K. R. Gurney, P. Rayner, P. Peylin, A. S. Denning, P. Bousquet, L. Bruhwiler, Y.-H. Chen, P. Ciais, I. Y. Fung, M. Heimann, J. John, T. Maki, S. Maksyutov, K. Masarie, M. Prather, B. Pak, S. Taguchi, and Z. Zhu (2006). TransCom 3 inversion intercomparison: Impact of transport model errors on the interannual variability of regional CO2 fluxes, 1988–2003, Global Biogeochem. Cycles20, GB1002, doi:10.1029/2004GB002439. (PDF)

Patra, P. K., K. R. Gurney, A. S. Denning, S. Maksyutov, T. Nakazawa, and TransCom Modelers. 2006, Sensitivity of inverse estimation of annual mean CO2 sources and sinks to ocean-only sites versus all-sites observational networks, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L05814, doi:10.1029/2005GL025403. (PDF)

Corbin, K.D. and A.S. Denning, 2006:  Using Continuous Data to Estimate Clear-Sky Errors in Inversions of Satellite CO2 Measurements.  Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 (L12810), doi:10.1029/2006GL025910. (PDF)



Denning, A. S., et al, 2005. Science Implementation Strategy for the North American Carbon Program. Available online at (PDF)

Hanan, N. P., J. A. Berry, S. B. Verma, E. A. Walter-Shea, A. E. Suyker, G. G. Burba, and A. S. Denning, 2005. Model analyses of biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of CO2, water and energy in Great Plains tallgrass prairie and wheat ecosystems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology131, 162-179. (PDF)

Suits, N.S., A.S. Denning, J.A. Berry, C.J. Still, J.Kaduk and J.B. Miller, 2005. Simulation of carbon isotope discrimination of the terrestrial biosphere. Global Biogeochemical Cycles19, GB1017, doi:10.1029/2003GB002141. (PDF)

Schaefer, K., A. S. Denning, and O. Leonard, 2005.  The winter Arctic Oscillation, the timing of spring, and carbon fluxes in the northern hemisphere. Global Biogeochemical Cycles19, GB3017, doi:10.1029/2004GB002336. (PDF)

Lu, L., A. S. Denning, M. A. Silva-Dias, P. Silva-Dias, M. Longo, S. R. Freitas, and S. Saatchi, 2005. Mesoscale circulations and atmospheric CO2 variations in the Tapajós Region, Pará, Brazil. Journal of Geophysical Research110, D21102, doi:10.1029/2004JD005757. (PDF)

Peters, W., J.B. Miller, J. Whitaker, A.S. Denning, A. Hirsch, M.C. Krol, D. Zupanski, L. Bruhwiler, P.P. Tans, 2005. An ensemble data assimilation system to estimate CO2  surface fluxes from atmospheric trace gas observations. Jour. Geophys. Res. doi: 2005JD006157R.(PDF)



Gurney, K. R., R.M. Law, A.S. Denning, P.J. Rayner, B. Pak, and the TransCom 3 L2 modelers, 2004. Transcom 3 Inversion Intercomparison: Control results for the estimation of seasonal carbon sources and sinks. Global Biogeochemical Cycles18, G 1010, doi: 10.1029/2003GB002111.(PDF)

Helliker, B. R., J. A. Berry, A. K. Betts, P. S. Bakwin, K. J. Davis, A. S. Denning, J. R. Ehleringer, J. B. Miller, M. P. Butler, D. M. Ricciuto, 2004. Estimates of net CO2 flux by application of equilibrium boundary layer concepts to CO2 and water vapor measurements from a tall tower. Journal of Geophysical Research109, D20106, doi:10.1029/2004JD004532. (PDF)

Yi, C., K. J. Davis, P. S. Bakwin, A. S. Denning, N. Zhang, A. Desai, J. C. Lin, and C. Gerbig 2004. Observed covariance between ecosystem carbon exchange and atmospheric boundary layer dynamics at a site in northern Wisconsin. Journal of Geophysical Research109,D08302, doi:10.1029/2003JD004164.(PDF)

Nicholls, M.E., A.S. Denning, L. Prihodko, P.-L. Vidale, K. Davis, P. Bakwin, 2004:  A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere-atmospheric model. Journal of Geophysical Research109, D18117, doi:10.1029/2003JD004482.(PDF)

Silva Dias, M. A. F., P. L. Silva Dias, M. Longo, D. R. Fitzjarrald, and A. S. Denning, 2004. River breeze circulation in eastern Amazon: observations and modeling results. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 8, 111-121. (PDF)

Schaefer, K., A. S. Denning, and O. Leonard, 2004. The winter Arctic Oscillation and the timing of snowmelt in Europe. Geophys. Res. Lett. L22205, doi:10.1029/2004GL021035. (PDF)



Denning, A.S., M. Nicholls, L. Prihodko, I. Baker, P.-L. Vidale, K. Davis, and P. Bakwin, 2003. Simulated and observed variations in atmospheric CO2 over a Wisconsin forest. Global Change Biology9, 1241-1250. (PDF)

Baker, I.T., A.S. Denning, N. Hanan, L. Prihodko, P.-L. Vidale, K. Davis and P. Bakwin, 2003: Simulated and observed fluxes of sensible and latent heat and CO2 at the WLEF-TV Tower using SiB2.5. Global Change Biology9, 1262-1277. (PDF)

Dai, Y., X. Zeng, R.E. Dickinson, I. Baker, G. Bonan, M. Bosilovich, S. Denning, P. Dirmeyer, P. Houser, G. Niu, K. Oleson, A. Schlosser and Z.-L. Yang, 2003: The common land model (CLM). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society84, 1013–1023.(PDF)

Law, R. M., Y.H. Chen, K.R. Gurney, P. Rayner, A.S. Denning, and TransCom 3 modelers, 2003.  “TransCom3 CO2 inversion intercomparison: 2. Sensitivity of annual mean results to data choices.  Tellus55B (2) 580-595. (PDF)

Gurney, K. R., R. M. Law, A. S. Denning, P. J. Rayner, D. Baker, P. Bousquet, L. Bruhwiler, Y.-H. Chen, P. Ciais, S. Fan, I.Y. Fung, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, K. Higuchi, J. John, E. Kowalczyk, T. Maki, S. Maksyutov, P. Peylin, M. Prather, B.C. Pak, J. Sarmiento, S. Taguchi, 2003. TransCom3 CO2 inversion intercomparison: 1. Annual mean control results and sensitivity to transport and prior flux information. Tellus55B, 555-579. (PDF)



Cihlar, J., S. Denning, F. Ahern, O. Arino, A. Belward, F. Bretherton, W. Cramer, G. Dedieu, C. Field, R. Francey, R. Gommes, J. Gosz, K. Hibbard, T. Igarashi, P. Kabot, D. Olsen, S. Plummer, I. Rasool, M. Raupuch, R. Scholes, J. Townshend, R. Valentini and D. Wickland, 2002: Initiative to quantify terrestrial carbon sources and sinks. EOSTransactions, American Geophysical Union83 (1), 1 Jan. 2002, 6-7.

Gurney, K.R., R. M. Law, A. S. Denning, P. J. Rayner, D. Baker, P. Bousquet, L. Bruhwiler, Y.-H. Chen, P. Ciais, S. Fan, I.Y. Fung, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, K. Higuchi, J. John, T. Maki, S. Maksyutov, K. Masarie, P. Peylin, M. Prather, B.C. Pak, J. Randerson, J. Sarmiento, S. Taguchi, T. Takahashi and C.-W. Yuen, 2002: Towards robust regional estimates of CO2 sources and sinks using atmospheric transport models. Nature415, 626-630, 7 Feb. 2002. (PDF)

Engelen, R. J., A. S. Denning, and K. R. Gurney, 2002: On error estimation in atmospheric CO2 inversions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, 4635, doi:10.1029/2002JD002195.(PDF)

Schaefer, K., A.S. Denning, N. Suits, Jorg Kaduc, I. Baker, S. Los, and L. Prihodko, 2002: The effect of climate on inter-annual variability of terrestrial CO2 fluxes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles16, 1102, doi:10.1029/2002GB001928. (PDF)

Randerson, J. T., C.J. Still, J.J. Ballé, I.Y. Fung, S.C. Doney, P.P. Tans, T.J. Conway, J.W.C. White, B. Vaughn, N. Suits, A.S. Denning, 2002. Carbon isotope discrimination of arctic and boreal biomes inferred from remote atmospheric measurements and a biosphere-atmosphere model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles16, 1136, doi:10.1029/2001GB001845. (PDF)

Randerson, J.T. G.J. Collatz, J.E. Fessenden, A.D. Munoz, C.J. Still, J.A. Berry, I.Y. Fung, N. Suits, and A.S. Denning.  2002. A possible global covariance between terrestrial gross primary production and 13C discrimination: Consequences for the atmospheric 13C budget and its response to ENSO. Global Biogeochemical Cycles16, 1136, doi:10.1029/2001GB001845 (PDF)


Engelen, R.J., G.L. Stephens, and A.S. Denning, 2001: The effect of CO2 variability on the retrieval of atmospheric temperatures. Geophysical Research Letters28, (17): 3259-3262.(PDF)

Engelen, R.J., A.S. Denning, K.R. Gurney and G.L. Stephens. Global observations of the carbon budget: I, 2001. Expected satellite capabilities in the EOS and NPOESS eras. Journal of Geophysical Research106, (D17), 20055-20068. (PDF)

Schimel, D.S., J.I. House, K.A. Hibbard, P. Bousquet, P. Cias, P. Peylin, B.H. Braswell, M.J. Apps, D. Baker, A. Bondeau, J. Canadell, G. Churkina, W. Cramer, A.S. Denning, C.B. Field, P. Friedlingstein, C. Goodale, M. Heimann, R.A. Houghton, J.M. Melillo, B. Moore, D. Murdiyarso, I. Noble, S.W. Pacala, I.C. Prentice, M.R. Paupach, P.J. Rayner, R.J. Scholes, W.L. Steffen and C. Wirth, 2001: Recent patterns in and mechanisms of carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems. Nature414 (6860), 169-172. (PDF)



Denning, A.S., T. Takahashi and P. Friedlingstein, 1999. Can a strong atmospheric CO2 rectifier effect be reconciled with a “reasonable” carbon budget? Tellus51B, 249-253. (PDF)

Denning, A.S., M. Holzer, K.R. Gurney, M. Heimann, R.M. Law, P.J. Rayner, I.Y. Fung, S.-M. Fan, S. Taguchi, P. Friedlingstein, Y. Balkanski, J. Taylor, M. Maiss and I. Levin, 1999: Three-dimensional transport and concentration of SF2: A model intercomparison study (TransCom 2). Tellus, 51B, 266-297. (PDF)

Peylin, P., P. Ciais, A.S. Denning, P.P. Tans, J.A. Berry and J.W.C. White, 1999. A three-dimensional study of ä18O in atmospheric CO2: Contribution of different land ecosystems. Tellus, 51B, 642-667.(PDF)

Potosnak, M.J., S.C. Wofsy, A.S. Denning, T.J. Conway and D.H. Barnes, 1999. Influence of biotic exchange and combustion sources on atmospheric CO2 concentrations in New England from observations at a forest flux tower. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 9561-9569. (PDF)


Pielke, R.A., R. Avissar, M. Raupach, H. Dolman, X. Zeng and S. Denning, 1998: Interactions between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems: influence on weather and climate. Global Change Biology, 4, 101-115. (PDF)


Sellers, P.J., R.E. Dickinson, D.A. Randall, A.K. Betts, F.G. Hall, J.A. Berry, C.J. Collatz, A.S. Denning, H.A. Mooney, C.A. Nobre and N. Sato, 1997: Modeling the exchanges of energy, water, and carbon between the continents and the atmosphere. Science, 275, 502-509.(PDF)

Ciais, P., A.S. Denning, P.P. Tans, J.A. Berry, D.A. Randall, G.J. Collatz, P.J. Sellers, J.W.C. White, M. Trolier, H.J. Meijer, R.J. Francey, P. Monfray and M. Heimann, 1997: A three-dimensional synthesis study of ä18O in atmospheric CO2. Part 1: Surface fluxes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 5857-5872.(PDF)

Ciais, P., P.P. Tans, A.S. Denning, R.J. Francey, M. Trolier, H.J. Meijer, J.W.C. White, J.A. Berry, D.A. Randall, G.J. Collatz, P.J. Sellers, P. Monfray and M. Heimann, 1997: A three-dimensional synthesis study of ä18O in atmospheric CO2. Part 2: Simulations with the TM2 transport model. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 5873-5883. (PDF)

Fung, I., J.A. Berry, C. Field, M. Thompson, J. Randerson, C. Malmstrom, P. Vitousek, J. Collatz, P.J. Sellers, D.A. Randall, A.S. Denning, F. Badeck and J. John, 1997: Carbon-13 exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 11, 507-533. (PDF)


Denning, A.S., J.G. Collatz, C. Zhang, D.A. Randall, J.A. Berry, P.J. Sellers, G.D. Colello and D.A. Dazlich, 1996: Simulations of terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric CO2 in a general circulation model. Part 1: Surface carbon fluxes. Tellus48B, 521-542. (PDF)

Denning, A.S., D.A. Randall, G.J. Collatz and P.J. Sellers, 1996: Simulations of terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric CO2 in a general circulation model. Part 2: Spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric CO2. Tellus48B, 543-567. (PDF)

Randall, D.R., P.J. Sellers, J.A. Berry, D.A. Dazlich, C. Zhang, J.A. Collatz, A.S. Denning, S.O. Los, C.B. Field, I. Fung, C.O. Justice and C.J. Tucker, 1996: Revised land-surface parameterization (SiB2) for gcms, Part 3: The greening of the Colorado State University General Circulation Model. Journal of Climate, 9, 738-763. (PDF)

Zhang, C., D.A. Dazlich, D.A. Randall, P.J. Sellers and A.S. Denning, 1996: Calculations of the global land surface energy, water, and C fluxes with an off-line version of SiB2. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 19061-19075. (PDF)

Law, R.M., P.J. Rayner, A.S. Denning, D. Erickson, M. Heimann, S.C. Piper, M. Ramonet, S. Taguchi, J.A. Taylor, C.M. Trudinger and I.G. Watterson, 1996: Variations in modeled atmospheric transport of carbon dioxide and the consequences for CO2 inversions. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 783-796. (PDF)

Peylin, P., P. Ciais, P.P Tans, K. Six, J.A. Berry and A.S. Denning, 1996: 18O in atmospheric CO2 simulated by a 3-D transport model: A sensitivity study to vegetation and soil fractionation factors. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 21, 463-469. (PDF)


Denning, A.S., I.Y. Fung and D.A. Randall, 1995: Latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 due to seasonal exchange with land biota. Nature376, 240-243. (PDF)


Baron, J. and A.S. Denning, 1993: The influence of mountain meteorology on precipitation chemistry at low and high elevations of the Colorado Front Range, USA. Atmospheric Environment, 27A, 2337-2349. (PDF)

Denning, A. S,. 1993. Relating surface energy budgets to the biochemistry of photosynthesis: A review for non biologists. Unpublished manuscript. (PDF)


Denning, A.S., J. Baron, M.A. Mast and M. Arthur, 1991: Hydrologic pathways and chemical composition of runoff during snowmelt in Loch Vale Watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 59, 107-123.(PDF)

Baron, J., D. McKnight and A. S. Denning, 1991: Sources of dissolved and particulate organic material in Loch Vale Watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. Biogeochemistry 15, 89-110.(PDF)


Bigelow, D.S., A.S. Denning and J. Baron, 1990: Differences between Alter and Nipher shielded Belfort precipitation gages at two Colorado monitoring sites. Environmental Science and Technology, 24, 758-760. (PDF)


Denning, A.S. and D.R. Lux, 1989: 40Ar /39Ar isotopic dating of the Horserace Quartz Diorite and its bearing on age relationships in the Katahdin Batholith–Traveler Rhyolite system. In: R. D. Tucker and R. G. Marvinney (Eds.), Studies in Maine Geology 4, 115–123. Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, ME. (PDF)